Point Lookout, Long Island, New York, U.S.A.

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Point Lookout's Water
In 1988, in response to complaints of rusty water, the Department of Water of the Town of Hempstead conducted a study of the Lido-Point Lookout water system. The study also investigated lead levels in the water supply. The report, with some minor editing, follows. If subsequent work on the water system comes to our attention, it will be posted.


The Department of Water has prepared the enclosed preliminary report on discolored water at customers taps in the Lido-Point Lookout Water District based upon the increasing frequency of these complaints, to wit 1988. This problem of discolored water has been a frustrating and long standing problem in the Water District some years being worse than others, the problem previously being moderated by a District bi-annual fire hydrant flushing problem.

This report presents a preliminary assessment of the problem as it currently exists, addresses why the problem exists and suggests various alternatives for further study to ameliorate the problem.

The Department of Water on behalf of the Lido-Point Lookout Water District will conduct an open meeting on November 15,1988 at 8:00 P.M. at Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal Parish Hall, Point Lookout, to discuss the matter of discolored water at which time copies of the enclosed report will be distributed.

In addition to the placing of posters within the District announcing this meeting various civic associations were contacted directly. These include two Lido Beach Civic Associations, the Point Lookout Civic Association and the Lido-Point Lookout Fire District.

It is hoped that the Department of Water through this and subsequent meetings will be able to establish an effective dialogue with customers of the Water District and together a joint resolution of the problem be effectuated.


Research by the Department of Water into the age of unlined cast iron water mains in the Point Lookout and Lido areas indicates average ages of 58 years for Point Lookout and 54 and 69 years for Lido depending on reality development in that area.

The early water supply for the Point Lookout area was derived from a shallow well installed around 1928/1929 with a small! wooden elevated tank providing storage. A photograph of this well and tank is included in the report and is titled "Point Lookout Water Works - 1929, William Cotter, Plant Superintendent". It is not known if disinfection of the well water was provided, however, it is known that no corrosion control (Ph adjustment) was provided and that the well water would most probably be found to be both soft and aggressive.

Water supplied to the Lido area commencing with reality (sic) development in the late twenties was supplied by the City of Long Beach which treated the water to remove iron, followed by passage through filters containing calcium carbonate (calcite). These filters provided removal of oxidized iron and to a limited extent provided corrosion control (Ph adjustment).

Returning to the Point Lookout area, improvements to the water supply for this area were made in 1936 and 1937 and are described in this report,and include a 1,200 foot deep well (Lloyd formation) a pressure filter for iron removal (calcite) a concrete ground storage tank and associated pumps .These improvements were made by the Lido Point, Inc. Water Company, a privately held company. The calcite filter was required to remove naturally occurring iron found in the Lloyd formation and provided limited corrosion control. A review of an operator log from the year 1941 indicates numerous operating problems with the treatment process with accompaning (sic) complaints of dirty water.

In 1952 the Lido Point, Inc. Water Company was acquired by the Lido Water Works Corporation and subsequently in 1954 the Corporation was purchased by the Town of Hempstead and whose assets were made part of the Lido-Point Lookout Water District which was formally established on 10/5/54.

With the construction of a second deep well in 1955 the newly formed Water District in addition to providing treatment for iron removal provided corrosion control through the use of lime and disinfection by using liquid sodium hypochlorite.

Installation of transmission water mains by the District provided the means of transferring this treated water to both the Point Lookout and Lido areas. It appears reasonable to state that for the period commencing in the late twenties to 1955 water supplied to the Point Lookout and Lido areas receivedlittlee or no treatment for corrosion control, a period of some sixty years.

To help improve the condition of water distributed to the customers tap, the District in 1962 cleaned a portion of the cast iron water mains in the Point Lookout area. This cleaning was limited to scraping the interior of the cast iron water mains and did not include providing a protective cement mortar coating following the cleaning. Unfortunately without th is protective coating corrosion of the cast iron water mains would continue, the use of corrosion control by the District now limiting the rate of corrosion.

The Lido-Point Lookout Water District has some 25.3 miles of water mains almost all of which are unlined cast iron and which because of their age and lack of the practice of corrosion control prior to 1955 today produce discolored water complaints whose frequency is such as to require corrective action by the District.

It should be noted that the problem of discolored water in the District is also related to the water service lines serving District customers. The District presently serves a total of 1,732 customers of which 1,238 or 71.5 have iron pipe services connecting the customer to District water mains. The ages of these iron pipe services within the District are similar to the ages of the unlined cast iron water mains previously referred to. For the I most part these iron pipes services are badly corroded and along with unlined cast iron water mains produce discolored water complaints in addition to restricting flow.

Of the 836 customer accounts in Point Lookout 757 are estimated to have iron pipe services and of the 896 customer accounts in Lido Beach 481 are estimated to have iron pipe services. This information is provided in the report.

Final resolution of the discolored water problem will require taking into account these iron pipe services.

water tower-1929


With the increasing number of complaints of discolored water received by the Department in 1988 from the Lido-Point Lookout Water District the Department reviewed and analyzed all discolored water complaints from the District for the years 1986, 1987 and 1988 (up to 8/10/88) which are included in the report.

Analysis of such complaints for this period were made for the entire District and its component areas of Point Lookout and Lido Beach. This analysis was made first by street location and then by months. A map of the District is included in· the report with streets shown in red indicating receipt by the Department of a total of ten or more complaints for the years 1986, 1987 and 1988.

The breakdown of complaints indicates the problem to be more pronounced in the Lido area with the year 1988 by far having the largest number of complaints throughout the District. As expected for each year of the period in question the greatest number of complaints were received during the months of May, June, July and August when water usage is at its greatest.

In 1987 the Department of Water introduced sprinkling regulations as a water conservation' measure. These regulations consisted of odd-even day sprinkling and no sprinkling on any day between the hours of 10: 00 A.M. to 4:00 P.M. This program commenced at mid-year and as a new program there was limited customer participation. In 1988 as the result of various informational type programs and enforcement both by the Department of Water and the County of Nassau greater customer participation was noted.

Because of the limited size of the District's distribution system coupled with the deteriorated condition of the unlined cast iron water mains and iron pipe services the new sprinkling regulations created unusual flow patterns and surges within the system. As a consequence, the number of discolored water complaints increased dramatically, which is especially noticeable during the summer period. Once the distribution system is distrubed (sic) and continues to be distrubed (sic) without the opportunity for recovery (quiescent conditions) discolored water problems will persist.

As previously mentioned the District ,:routinely performed bi-annual flushing of the system, however with the advent of the new sprinkling regulations the amount of water flowed from the District's fire hydrants was reduced, thus limiting the effectiveness of the flushing. This reduction in flushing water is considered to have a contributory effect on the increased number of discolored water complaints.

A review of Department of Water complaint records for the District prior to 1986 indicates a limited number of complaints of discolored water, these complaints following a pattern similar to that found in the report. It is anticipated that as a result of the continued aging of the distribution system and services, sprinkling regulations and flushing limited by water conservation, the problems of discolored water will no longer be manageable and other means to control discolored water must be considered.


The problem associated with the District's unlined cast iron water mains and iron pipe services is quite evident visually to District customers. Unbeknown to most customers is the large number of lead pipe connections between the cast iron water main and iron pipe services commonly referred to as lead goosnecks. Use of the lead gooseneck connection at one time was quite common, however this type of connection is no longer used.

To determine if through corrosion lead was being contributed to water flowing from the customer tap the Department of Water recently conducted in conjunction with the Nassau County Department of Health a series of tests. These tests were performed at a residence located at 54 Glenwood Avenue, Point Lookout, New York. The residence in question is approximately 56 year old, being built in 1932.

The testing consisted of collecting some 90 water samples on a continuous fill and draw basis so as to completely displace the content of the iron pipe service and lead gooseneck serving 54 Glenwood Avenue. The results of this testing indicated that all water samples were found to have lead levels less than 10 parts per billion, the detection limits of the Town's Laboratory equipment. The current New York State Health Department standard for Lead (PB) is 50 parts per billion although reduction of this standard is currently being considered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Information relating to this study is contained in the report.

It is estimated that the number of lead goosenecks in the District is the same as the number of iron pipe services in the District which is 1,238 or 71.5% of the District 1,732 customers. In the long term it would be desirable to remove all lead gooseneck connections from the District which most probably would accompany the replacement of iron pipe services with copper.


The problem of an aging distribution system heretofore has not been actively addressed in the Lido-Point Lookout Water District. With the onset of increasing customer complaints it is now necessary to consider various options heretofore not considered. The use of an active flushing program which was cost effective and produced reasonably good results can no longer be counted on to produce the desired results as previously noted. Any other solution to the problem must bear a cost to the district customer, the question of cost vs remediation of the problem will be a decision that ultimately the customer and the District will be faced with.

A brief review of the distribution problems which the District is faced with would be as follows:

  • Almost all District water mains consist of unlined cast iron all of which are over 50 years in age and are badly turbulated (products of iron corrosion)
  • .
  • Some 71.5% of District customer water service lines are iron pipe services, most probably exceeding 50 years in age. These water services are badly corroded both internally and externally.
  • Some ·71.5% of District Customer services have lead gooseneck connections between the water main and iron pipe service. These connections based upon recent tests do not appear to be a source of lead contamination. Replacement of these connections on a long term basis is desirable.


To provide an improvement to District water quality in reducing discolored water complaints and reducing the potential for lead solubility is to incorporate in the current treatment process the use of inhibitors. Such inhibitors fall into the category of orthophosphate, polyphosphates and silicates, all of which in general are approved by the New York State Department of Health for use in potable water systems. Their use is not considered as a cure all but have been shown to be effective in reducing customer complaints.

Currently there are a number of water utilities in Nassau County which utilize polyphosphates in the treatment process. More often then not the use of a polyphosphate is to sequester (prevent oxidation to the insoluble form of iron) where iron is found in the supply source. The use by the District of an inhibitor would be to alleviate discolored water problems that occur from the distribution system rather then the supply source.

The Department of Water is currently evaluating the use of various inhibitors; costs of equipment and annual operating expense. The results of this investigation will be reported at a future meeting with District customers. The use of an inhibitor by the District should this methodology be employed is such that the treatment process could be in place prior to the 1989 summer season.

It should be borne in mind that with the use of an inhibitor the District has not resolved the problem completely and is still faced with clogged iron pipe services, external corrosion of iron pipe service and the presence of lead gooseneck service connections.


A permanent solution to correct the problems of discolored water would require either the cleaning and cement lining of unlined cast iron water mains or their replacement. This remediation would not address the problems associated with iron pipe water services or lead bends (goosenecks).

To determine the costs associated with either cleaning and lining or replacement of District water mains the Department retained the services of S. Bowne and Son, Consulting Civil Engineers. In addition, S. Bowne & Son was requested by the Department of Water to prepare cost estimates for replacement of iron pipe services and lead bends. In the initial cost evaluations the Department of Water directed S. Bowne & Son because of time constraints to provide such studies of the Point Lookout area only. Further studies will be made by S. Bowne & Son to also include the Lido Beach area. A copy of the report by S. Bowne & Son covering the Point Lookout area is included as part of the Departments report.

S. Bowne & Son has estimated that $2,267,000 would be required to clean and cement line all cast iron water mains in the Point Lookout area. The cost to replace all cast iron water mains, iron pipe services (up to the property I ine) and lead bends in the Point Lookout area is estimated to be $3,213,000. It should be noted that approximately one third of this cost is associated with pavement restoration. Replacement of the iron pipe water service line from the property line to the customer's residence would be the customer1s responsibil jty. A District customer with a home assessed at $7,500 would be required to pay $114 more a year to finance a capital outlay of $3,214,000.


The Department of Water has prepared a preliminary report on the problem of discolored water in the Lido-Point Lookout Water District. The report provides an explanation of the causes of the problem and possible solutions both short and long term.

Further studies of the problem will be carried out by the Department as expeditiously as possible. After completion of these studies the Department will again meet with interested parties to arrive at a concensus for a program to alleviate the discolored water condition.


Allevard Street 1 0 0 1
Anchor Road 2 0 0 2
Audrey Drive 0 0 0 0
Avon Lane 0 0 0 0
Baldwin Avenue 1 0 0 1
Bath Street 2 0 0 2
Bay Lane 0 0 0 0
Bayside Drive 2 0 0 2
Beech Street 0 1 1 2
Bellmore A venue 6 0 1 7
Biarritz Street 0 0 0 0
Blackheath Road 12 1 4 17
Bunker Road 11 0 0 11
Buxton Road 12 0 0 12
Carousel Lane 0 0 0 0
Cedarhurst Avenue 1 1 6 8
Cheltenham Street 1 0 0 1
Channel Road 2 0 0 2
Clover Lane 1 0 0 1
Daniel Drive 0 0 0 0
Donna Lane 0 0 0 0
Eden Road 3 0 1 4
Eva Drive 0 0 0 0
Fairway Road 4 2 7 13
Freeport Avenue 0 0 5 5
Garden City Avenue 4 0 1 5
Gerry Avenue 4 0 0 4
Glenwood Avenue 4 4 5 13
Greenway Road 6 0 1 7
Harbor Road 2 0 0 2
Harrogate Street 1 0 0 1
Hewlett Avenue 5 2 3 10
Inwood Avenue 7 0 4 11
Ivy Lane 1 0 3 4
Kensington Street 5 0 1 6
Lagoon Drive East 3 - 1 4
Lagoon Drive West 2 0 0 2
Leamington Street 1 0 0 1
Lido Boulevard (Lido) 6 16 7 29
Lido Boulevard (Pt. L) 0 0 0 0
Luchon Street 1 3 7 11
Lynbrook Avenue 2 0 1 3
Marginal Road 0 0 0 0
Matlock Street 2 0 3 5
Mineola Avenue 0 0 1 1
Nantwick Street 0 0 1 1
Ocean Boulevard (Lido) 0 0 0 0
Ocean Boulevard (Pt. L) 0 0 0 0
Total Complaints 136 37 74 247
Total Streets 43 11 27  
Total Streets in District: 64
1988 data is as of 8/10/88


MONTH 1988 * 1987 1986 TOTAL
January 0 0 0 0
February 0 1 2 3
March 0 0 0 0
April 0 0 1 1
May 2 2 7 11
June 12 0 7 19
July 15 2 3 20
August 5 0 2 7
September - 0 2 2
October - 0 4 4
November - 4 3 7
December - 1 0 1
TOTAL 34 10 31 75
* As of 8/10/88

map, high complaint rate streets


Estimated Time Frames Water Mains Installed in Lido Area a) 1928-1930 b) 1932-1940
Estimated Average Ages of Water Mains in Lido Area - Years a) 69 b)54
Estimated Time Frame Water Mains Installed in Point Lookout 1928-1932
Estimated Average Age of Water Mains in Point Lookout - Years 58
Installation by Lookout Point, Inc. of a Shallow Well /Wood Storage Tank at Point Lookout (See Attached Photograph) 1929
Installation of Lloyd Well One, Pressure Sand Filter, 10,000 Gallon Hydro Pneumatic Tank, 150,000 Gallon Concrete Storage Tank with Gasoline Engine Stand-by, 10 H P Electric Booster, Pump Building and Treatment House 1936-1937
Date of Acquisition of Lookout Point, Inc. by Lido Water Works Corp. 12/321/52
Establishment by the Town of Hempstead of a Special Improvement District, Lido-Point Lookout Water District 10/5/54
Purchase by the Town of Hempstead of Behalf of the Lido­Point Lookout Water District the Lido-Water Works Corp. for $125,000 2/28/55
Construction in Point lookout of a second Lloyd Well, Filter Building (6) Pressure Sand Filters, Auxiliary Diesel Engines, Electric Booster Pumps, 1 Million Gallon Ground Storage Tank and Transmission Water Main 1955
Installation of Water Meters for flat rate customers in Point lookout and Lido Beach 1957-1960
Cleaning without cement lining of a portion of water mains in Point lookout 1962
Construction of a 0.5 Million Gallon Elevated Water Tank at Point lookout 1964
Construction in Lido Beach of a third Lloyd Well, Filter Building, Diatomaceous Earth Pressure Filters and Electric Booster Pumps 1969


Establshed 10/5/54
Number of Wells 3
Dates Installed 1937/1956/1968
NYSDEC Authorized Well Capacity - Millions of Gallons/Day 5.0
Elevated Tank - Million of Gallons 0.5
Ground Storage Tank - Million of Gallons 1.0
Water Treatment Corrosion Control Disinfection Pressure Sand Filtration
Source of Ground Water Lloyd Formation
Miles of Water Mains in Service 25.3
Number of Fire Hydrants 229
Active Services 1,904**
Service Area - Square Miles 2.0
Annual Water Production - Millions of Gallons 341
NYSDEC Pumpage Cap - Millions of Gallons 357
Average Day Pumpage - Millions of Gallons 0.93
Peak Day Pumpage - Million of Gallons 2.16
District Assessed Valuation - Dollars 18,728,113
Ad-Valorem District Tax Rate* 2.825
Operating Budget - Dollars 770,277
Plant Personnel 3

*Per Hundred Dollars of Assessed Valuation
Includes 172 Sprinkler Meter Accounts

Point Lookout    836 79 757 90.5
Lido Beach 896 415 481 53.6
Total 1,732 494 1,238 71.5

*9/20/88 - As per information furnished by D. McNair, Plant Supervisor



Date Home Constructed: 1932
Age of Home - Years:56
Water Service Line Material: Iron Pipe
Nominal Water Service Line Pipe Diameter - Inches: 0.75
Account Number: 421018

Outside Diameter - Inches:1.050
Inside Diameter - Inches: 0.824
Length - Feet: 73
Storage Volume - Gallons: 2.0211

Nominal Inside Diameter: 1
Length - Inches: 18
Volume - Gallons: 0.06116

Sample Jar - gallons: 0.03303
Number of Samples Collected: 90
Sample Volume - gallons: 2.9727

Dates: 10/24/88, 11/2/88
Time no water drawn prior to sampling - hours:8
NY State Health Dept., Drinking Water Standards for Lead:0.05 Mg/l*
Present at time of sampling - Nassau County Health Dept., Department of Water, S. B. Bowne and Son



Col. by DM   Lab No.34852   Date Collected 10/24/88   Date received 10/25/88   Date Analysis Begun 10/25/88
Client TOH WATER DEPT    Water Supply Lido, Point Lookout   Premises of sampling 54 Glenwood Ave, Point Lookout   Point of Collection Distribution   Special

[Editors Note. All 60 samples measured less than 0.01 parts per million]
Remarks: Results satisfactory, the analyses meet all requirements of the N. Y State Health Dept. for Lead
. Michael Foley Date Received. 10/28/88

Second Test Col. by DM Lab No.34963   Date Collected 11/03/88   Date received 11/03/88   Date Analysis Begun 11/03/88
Client TOH WATER DEPT   Water Supply Lido, Point Lookout  Premises of sampling 54 Glenwood Ave, Point Lookout
Point of Collection Distribution  Special SAMPLE ppm Pb

[Editors Note. All 60 samples measured less than 0.01 parts per million]

Remarks: Results satisfactory, the analyses meet all requirements of the N. Y State Health Dept.

Michael Foley Date Received. 11/04/88

October, 1988
Sidney B. Bowne & Son
Consulting Engineers
Mineola - Smithtown

During the spring and early summer of 1988, numerous complaints of rusty water occurring in the Point Lookout area of the District were reported to the Water Department. Upon review of the complaints and comparison with those received in previous years, it became apparent that as water demands increased, due primarily to increased water use for lawn sprinkling, discolored water would occur in areas of the District caused by the higher velocity of water movement through the cast iron water mains. The higher velocity creates a scaling effect along the interior walls of the unlined cast iron pipe and dislodges the build-up of corrosion products, iron oxide particles causing the discoloration of the water whch reaches the consumers.

After receiving an excess number of complaints in 1986, a main flushing program was undertaken.

Flushing the mains through full open fire hydrants causes extremely high velocities in the mains and results in removing the built-up scale on the walls of the pipes. This temporarily cleans the mains and reduces the occurrence of rusty water. After the flushing program, fewer complaints were received during 1987.

Because of water caps being imposed by DEC on water suppliers, water conserving measures were implemented and a less vigorous flushing progran was conducted in the fall of 1987. This led to the renewed complaints of rusty water in 1988. As most of the mains in the Point lookout area are unlined cast iron, corrosion will continuously take place and rusty water complaints will occur whenever change in water demand occurs creating high velocities in the mains.

Another source causing rusty water can exist within the consumers water service line running from the main to the house which in this area consists mostly of galvanzied iron pipe with a lead pipe gooseneck connection at the water main. The exact number of this type of service line is not known, but it is believed that all the older homes are supplied by galvanized lines.

Rusty water problems can temporarily be controlled through a main flushing progrcrn. However, with the water conservation program implemented by the Water Department, use of water for this purpose is not desirable.

There are two means of permanently correcting the problem. One is to clean and cement line the existing mains and the other is to replace the mains with larger cement lined pipe.

Cleaning the existing mains by means of scrapers will remove the corrosion products but corrosion will reform in a short period of time unless the interior of the pipe is protected. This can be done by applying a cement lining to the pipe after it has been cleaned. This process usually increases the flow characteristics of the pipe but causes a slight decrease in the interior diameter of the main. Main sizes in this area are of the minimum size at the present time.

There is approximately 35,650 linear feet of water main in the Point Lookout area and there are 850 water service connections.

The cost of cleaning and cement lining existing mains is estimated to range between $48.00 and $53.00 per linear foot. This does not include replacing the water service line to each dwelling. The overall cost of cleaning and cement lining is estimated to range between $2,055,000.00 and $2,267,000.00 when engineering and contingency costs are included in the project. The above estimate is inclusive of all necessary excavation, back­fill, temporary water lines and restoration of affected areas.

Replacement of all existing mains in the Point Lookout area would include the supply mains between the area and the water plant on Lido Boule­vard. It would also include replacement of some 6,600 feet of asbestos-cement water main because of the concern for the integrity of this type of pipe. Water service lines would be replaced from the main to the property 1ine to eliminate the exposure to the lead pipe goosenecks and a portion of the galvanized iron pipe.

The cost of full main replacement, including restoration, engineering and contingentcy fees is estimated at $3,214,,000.00. This option contains the benefit over cement-lining of the existing mains in that it is an improvement to the overall system by increasing main sizes to conform to present day standards and eliminates the exposure to lead piping and the potential for the water to become contaminated by lead.

A detailed breakdown of the estimated cost of a full replacement of the mains in the Point Lookout areas is attached as Appendix A.

-------The End--------